US Army Corps of Engineers
Portland District

Conceptual model references

Baptista, A., J. Zhang, A. Chawla, C. Seaton, and others. 2001. Towards the understanding of channel deepening impacts. Presentation.

Baptista, A., J. Zhang, and A. Chawla. 2003. Modeling circulation in the lower Columbia River. Research Needs Workshop.

Boesch, D.F. 2002. Challenges and opportunities for science in reducing nutrient over-enrichment of coastal ecosystems. Estuaries 25(4B):886-900.

Bottom, D.L., C.A. Simenstad, A.M. Baptista, D.A. Jay, J. Burke, K.K. Jones, E. Casillas, and M.H. Schiewe. 2001. Salmon at river's end: The role of the estuary in the decline and recovery of Columbia River salmon. (Draft). U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle, Washington.

Chapman, M.G. 2003. Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: Effects of urbanization on biodiversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 264:21-29.

Corps of Engineers. 2001. Biological Assessment Columbia River Channel Improvements Project. Submitted to NMFS and USFWS. December 28, 2001. Portland, OR.

Forman, R.T.T., and M.Godron. 1986. Landscape ecology. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

Fox, D.S., S. Bell, W. Nehlsen, J. Damron, and E. Krebill. 1984. The Columbia River estuary: Atlas of physical and biological processes. Columbia River Estuary Data Development Program.

Hood, W.G. 2002a. Application of landscape allometry to restoration of tidal channels. Restoration Ecology 10(2):213-222.

Hood, W.G. 2002b. Landscape allometry: From tidal channel hydraulic geometry to benthic ecology. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:1418-1427.

Jay, D.A. 2003. A unified view of research needs for the Columbia River, estuary and plume. Research Needs Workshop.

Johnson, G.E., R.M. Thom, A.H. Whiting, G.B. Sutherland, T. Berquam, B.D. Ebberts, N.M. Ricci, J.A. Southard, and J.D. Wilcox. 2003. An ecosystem-based approach to habitat restoration projects with emphasis on salmonids in the Columbia River estuary. PNNL-14412. Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Jones, K.K., C.A. Simenstad, D.L. Higley, and D.L. Bottom. 1990. Community structure, distribution, and standing stock of benthos, epibenthos, and plankton in the Columbia River estuary. Progress in Oceanography. 25(1-4):211-241.

Lalli, C.M., and T.R. Parsons. 1997. Biological oceanography. Butterworth and Heinmann. Oxford.

Lewis, J., S.R. Mori, E.T. Keppeler, and R.R. Ziemer. 2001. Impacts of logging on storm peak flows, flow volumes and suspended sediment loads in Caspar Creek, California. In: Wigmosta, M.S., and S.J. Burges, eds. Land use and watersheds: Human influence on hydrology and geomorphology in urban and forest areas. 85-125.

Mitsch, W.J., and J.G> Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands. Second Edition. Van Nostrand Reihold. New York.

Myers, A.M., D.D. Roby, K. Collis, and D.E. Lyons. 2004. Declines in numbers of Capsian terns at colonies in the Pacific Northwest: Indication of decreased survival rates between the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons? Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Pacific Seabird Group, La Paz, Mexico.

Pearson, W.H., G.D. Williams, and J.R. Skalski. 2002. Estimated entrainment of Dungeness crab during dredging for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. PNNL-14129. Prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Sequim, Washington.

Proctor, C.M., J.C. Garcia, D.V. Galvin, T. Joyner, G.B. Lewis, L.C. Loehr, and A.M. Massa. 1980. An ecological characterization of the Pacific Northwest coastal region: Volume one: Conceptual model. Biological Services Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-79/11.

Proctor, C.M., J.C. Garcia, D.V. Galvin, G.B. Lewis, L.C. Loehr, and A.M. Massa. 1980. An ecological characterization of the Pacific Northwest coastal region: Volume three: Characterization atlas - Zone and habitat descriptions. Biological Services Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-79/13.

Roby, D.D., K. Collis, and D.E. Lyons. 2003. Conservation and management for fish-eating birds and endangered salmon. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191.

Shafer, D.J., and D.J.Yozzo. 1998. National guidebook for application of hydrogeomorphic assessment to tidal fringe wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-16. Wetlands Research Program, Waterways Experiment Station, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Simenstad, C.A. 2001. Ecoscape perspective of juvenile salmon in the Columbia River estuary. Presentation.

Simenstad, C.A., J.L. Burke, I.R. Waite, T.D. Counihan, and J.R. Hatton. 2004. Lower Columbia River and estuary ecosystem classification: Phase I. Appendix A in Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership, Columbia River Estuary Habitat Monitoring Plan. DRAFT. Portland, Oregon.

Small, L.F., C.D. McIntire, K.B. Macdonald, J.R. Lara-Lara, B.E. Frey, M.C. Amspoker, and T. Winfield. 1990. Primary production, plant and detrital biomass, and particle transport in the Columbia River estuary. Progress in Oceanography. 25(1-4):175-210.

Thom, R.M. 2000. Adaptive management of coastal ecosystem restoration projects. Ecological Engineering 15:365-372.

Thom, R.M., A.B. Borde, K.O. Richter, and L.F. Hibler. 2001. Influence of urbanization on ecological processes in wetlands. In: Wigmosta, M.S., and S.J. Burges, eds. Land use and watersheds: Human influence on hydrology and geomorphology in urban and forest areas. 5-16.

Thom, R.M., R. Zeigler, A.B. Borde. 2002. Floristic development patterns in a restored Elk River estuarine marsh, Grays River, Washington. Restoration Ecology 10(3):487-496.

Thom, R.M., A.B. Borde, S. Rumrill, D.L. Woodruff, G.D. Williams, J.A. Southard, and S.L. Sargeant. 2003. Factors influencing spatial and annual variability in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows in Willapa Bay, Washington, and Coos Bay, Oregon, estuaries. Estuaries 26(4B):1117-1129.

Weitkamp, L.A. 1994. A review of the effects of dams on the Columbia River estuarine environment, with special reference to salmonids.

Williams, P.B., and M.K. Orr. 2002. Physical evolution of restored breached levee salt marshes in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Restoration Ecology 10(3):527-542.

Williams, G.D., and R.M. Thom. 2001. Marine and estuarine shoreline modification issues.

Contact information

Ronald Thom, Ph.D
360-681-3657

Marine Research Operations, PNNL
1529 W. Sequim Bay Rd.
Sequim, WA 98382